Look out for results that are reported using p-values instead of confidence intervals. Confidence intervals should be reported.
The observed difference in effects is the best estimate of the relative impact of human activities on the environment. However, because of the play of chance, the true difference may be larger or smaller. The confidence interval is the range within which the true difference is likely to lie, after taking into account the play of chance. Although a confidence interval (margin of error) is more informative than a p-value, the latter is often reported. P-values are often misinterpreted to mean that interventions have or do not have important effects. For example, a p-value of 0.06 might be interpreted as indicating that there was not a difference between the interventions being compared. When, in fact, it only indicates the probability of the observed difference (the effect estimate) or a bigger difference having occurred by chance if in reality there was no difference.
REMEMBER: Understanding a confidence interval may be necessary to understand the reliability of an estimated effect. Whenever possible, consider confidence intervals when assessing estimates of effects of interventions. Do not be misled by p-values.
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